Citations in a Foreign Language

Advanced training in a foreign language is a valuable component of a liberal arts education; it allows students to employ another language in cultural exchange, research, and work. To foster such training, many of the "language and literature" and "language and civilization" departments offer programs in which undergraduates may earn a citation in a modern or ancient language. Those languages in which citations are offered and the specific requirements for each are listed below. The award of a foreign language citation will be noted on the transcript at the time degrees are voted, and will be included in the commencement program. Students will also receive printed citations along with their diplomas.

Each language citation program consists of four half-courses of language instruction beyond the first-year level and/or half-courses taught primarily in the foreign language. At least two of these half-courses must be at the third-year level or beyond. Appropriate courses taken in approved programs of study out of residence for which the student receives Harvard degree credit may be counted toward a citation. Courses that satisfy the requirements for a citation may also be counted toward Core, General Education and/or concentration requirements, as appropriate, but only one half-course may count towards a secondary field (see page 34). Also, some students who complete the requirements for the Citation in Foreign Language are able to satisfy the Foreign Cultures requirement of the Core Program; students who wish to pursue this option must file an application with the General Education Office.

Students must complete all courses to count toward the citation with letter grades of B- or better. Regardless of the level at which a student enters a language program at Harvard, all citations require the completion of four half-courses taken at Harvard or counted for Harvard degree credit. Language courses that meet these criteria but are bracketed on the transcript may be counted toward a language citation. Some programs require that courses be taken in a particular sequence; students should consult the relevant language advisers for more information.

Students who plan to satisfy the requirements for a foreign language citation must complete a Foreign Language Citation Study Plan with the Head Tutor or Director of Undergraduate Studies of the relevant department and file this form with the Registrar no later than the deadline for degree applications in their final term in the College. Students are encouraged to file their intentions to satisfy the requirements for a foreign language citation as early as the declaration of a concentration so that they may benefit from advising by the department that will provide the recognition. Students will benefit from planning ahead and taking courses in consecutive terms, so as not to lose ground between language courses; this is especially important at the early stages of language study. Students planning their courses around a study-abroad or work-abroad experience should consult with relevant advisers upon their return, as their language experience abroad may have an effect on the courses students may use for the Language Citation. Those students who later decide not to complete the requirements for a citation in a foreign language are asked to complete a new Plan of Study indicating this fact in order to inform the relevant department and the Registrar.

Concentrators, including joint concentrators, in African and African American Studies, the Classics, East Asian Studies, Germanic Languages and Literatures, Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Romance Languages and Literatures, Sanskrit and Indian Studies, or Slavic Languages and Literatures, whose concentration work is built on a particular language or set of languages, are not also eligible for citations in those languages.

African Languages
(See Gikuyu, Igbo, Swahili, Twi, Yoruba, Zulu)
For all other African languages, please consult the Director of the African Language Program.

Classical Arabic
Four of the following half-courses: Arabic 120a, 120b, 130a, 130b, 140, 141, 160r, 240r, 245r, 248r.
Other courses taught primarily in Arabic or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations concentration.

Modern Standard Arabic
Four of the following half-courses, including at least two from the third-year or beyond list:
Second-year level: Arabic 110, 121a, 121b.
Third-year or beyond: Arabic 131a, 131b, 241a, 241b.
Other courses taught primarily in Arabic or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations concentration.

Catalan
Catalan 20 plus three terms of Catalan 91r (conducted in Catal଩, as an equivalent of 4 half courses beyond the first year of language study. Two half-courses must be at the third-year level or beyond. Other advanced Catalଠcourses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit (if conducted in Catal଩ may be substituted for these courses with permission of the Director of Language Programs for the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures. In the case of summer study, the course must last six weeks or consist of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit copies of syllalbi and copies of graded written work done for the course.

Chinese
Four half-courses from the following, of which at least two must be at the third-year level or beyond:
Second-year level: Chinese 120a, 120b, 123xb (Chinese 125ab may count as two half-courses at the second-year level).
Third-year level or beyond: Chinese 130a, 130b, 130xa, 130xb, 140a, 140b, 150a, 150b, 183, 187, 197.

Chinese Bx does not count for a language citation. Other courses taught primarily in Mandarin Chinese or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses only after assessment via a Chinese Placement Test and with the permission of the East Asian Language Coordinator (eal@fas.harvard.edu).

Literary Chinese
Chinese 106a, 106b, 107a, and 107b.
More advanced courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be
substituted for these courses with the permission of the East Asian Language Coordinator (eal@fas.harvard.edu).

Czech
Slavic Cr, Slavic Cd, and two terms of Slavic Cr (to be defined as third-year, or advanced).
Courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or Slavic 91r (if conducted in Czech) may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Slavic Languages and Literatures concentration.

French
Four of the following half-courses, including at least two from the list labeled third-year level or beyond:
Second-year level: French Ca, Cb, 25; Foreign Cultures 22a.

Third-year level or beyond: French courses numbered at the 30- to 50-level, or any French course numbered at a higher level conducted in French; Foreign Cultures 21, 22b. Students should consult the online Courses of Instruction for information on citation credit for literature courses numbered 100-199. Students may take no more than two half-courses numbered at each of the 30-level, 40-level, and 50-level.

Students will not receive credit toward a language citation for courses taken out of sequence.

That is, students may not take a second-year course after having taken a third-year course, or a third-year course after having taken a course at the fourth-year level, as indicated by the first digit of the course number. Students will receive neither Harvard nor citation credit for any course designated as equivalent to one they have already taken.

A half-credit toward a citation is granted to students who have enrolled in a French language section (i.e. discussions, readings, and written assignments all in French) of a literature or Core course given in English. This means that students enrolling in French language sections in two classes given in English will receive credit for one half-course toward the four required for a citation.

A maximum of two courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the undergraduate adviser in French. Courses taken out of residence will count toward a citation in French if the course is taught entirely in French as indicated in the syllabus or course description, and, in the case of summer study, the course lasts five weeks or consists of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Students who plan to satisfy the requirements for a foreign language citation in French must complete a Foreign Language Citation Study Plan with the Director of Language Programs in Romance Languages and Literatures (Boylston Hall 436, 617-495-2524).

German
Four of the following half-courses: German Ca, Cb, 61, 62, 65, 66; 71, 72, or any 100-level or 200-level course conducted in German. German Dab counts as a full course.
Other courses taught primarily in German or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies in German.

Gikuyu
The equivalent of four terms selected from among the following: Gikuyu B (a full course), Gikuyu 101ar, Gikuyu 101br, or AAAS 90r (if conducted in Gikuyu, with permission from the Director of the Language Program).

Other advanced courses in Gikuyu taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or AAAS 91r (if conducted in Gikuyu) may be substituted for these courses with permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Department of African and African American Studies. In the case of summer study, the course must last six weeks or consist of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Greek
Four half-courses chosen from the following: Greek Ba, Bb, H, K, or any 100-level Greek course, including those in Medieval Greek.

Other advanced courses or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for one or more of the above with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Classics concentration.

Modern Greek
Four half-courses (or equivalent) chosen from the following: Modern Greek B (a full course), 100, or any other 100-level course in which the reading is done in Modern Greek.

Other advanced courses or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for one or more of the above with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Classics concentration.

Classical Hebrew
Four of the following half-courses: Classical Hebrew 120a, 120b, 130ar, 130br; Hebrew 150a, 150b, 153, 165, 168, 171, 174, 176.

More advanced courses or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations concentration.

Modern Hebrew
Four of the following half-courses: Modern Hebrew 120a, 120b, 130r, 131r, or Near Eastern Civilizations 91r if focused on contemporary Israeli literature and culture and conducted in modern Hebrew at the third-year level or beyond.

Courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for two of these four courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations concentration.

Hindi (See Urdu and Hindi.)

Igbo
Four terms of AAAS 90r (conducted in Igbo), beyond the first year of language study. Two half-courses must be at the third-year level or beyond.

Other advanced Igbo courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or AAAS 91r (if conducted in Igbo) may be substituted for these courses with permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Department of African and African American Studies. In the case of summer study, the course must last six weeks or consist of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Italian
Four half-courses in Italian designated Italian Ca or above. Italian Dab is a full course and counts as two citation credits at the second-year level. Students should consult the online Courses of Instruction for information on citation credit for literature courses numbered 100-199.

Students will not receive credit toward a language citation for courses taken out of sequence.

That is, students may not take a second-year course after having taken a third-year course, or a third-year course after having taken a course at the fourth-year level, as indicated by the first digit of the course number. Students will receive neither Harvard nor citation credit for any course designated as equivalent to one they have already taken.

A half-credit toward a citation is granted to students who have enrolled in an Italian language section (i.e. discussions, readings, and written assignments all in Italian) of a literature or Core course given in English. This means that students enrolling in Italian language sections in two classes given in English will receive credit for one half-course toward the four required for a citation.

Other courses taught primarily in Italian or a maximum of two courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the undergraduate adviser in Italian. Courses taken out of residence will count toward a citation in Italian if the course is taught entirely in Italian as indicated in the syllabus or course description, and, in the case of summer study, the course lasts six weeks or consists of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Students who plan to satisfy the requirements for a foreign language citation in Italian must complete a Foreign Language Citation Study Plan with the Director of Language Programs in Romance Languages and Literatures (Boylston Hall 436, 617-495-2524).

Japanese
Four half-courses from the following: Japanese 120a, 120b, 130a, 130b, 140a, 140b, 150a, 150b.

Other courses taught primarily in Japanese or language courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses only after assessment via a Japanese Placement Test and with the permission of the East Asian Language Coordinator (eal@fas.harvard.edu).

Korean
Four half-courses from the following: Korean 120a, 120b, 130a, 130b, 140a, 140b, 150a, 150b.

More advanced courses or language courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses only after assessment via a Korean Placement Test and with the permission of the East Asian Language Coordinator (eal@fas.harvard.edu).

Latin
Four half-courses chosen from the following: Latin Ba, Bam, Bb, H, K, or any 100-level Latin course, including those in Medieval Latin.
Other advanced courses or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for one or more of the above courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Classics concentration.

Persian
Persian 120a, 120b, 140ar, 140br.
More advanced courses or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations concentration.

Polish
Slavic Dc, Slavic Dd, and two terms of Slavic Dr (to be defined as third-year, or advanced).
Courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or Slavic 91r (if conducted in Polish) may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Slavic Languages and Literatures concentration.

Portuguese
Four half-courses in Portuguese beyond the A level and that are conducted in Portuguese. Students should consult the online Courses of Instruction for information on citation credit for literature courses numbered 100-199.

Students will not receive credit toward a language citation for courses taken out of sequence.

That is, students may not take a second-year course after having taken a third-year course, or a third-year course after having taken a course at the fourth-year level, as indicated by the first digit of the course number. Courses having the same prerequisites, however, may be taken interchangeably. In unusual cases, the undergraduate adviser in Portuguese may approve an exception to this rule.

Other courses taught primarily in Portuguese or a maximum of two courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the undergraduate adviser in Portuguese. Courses taken out of residence will count toward a citation in Portuguese if the course is taught entirely in Portuguese as indicated in the syllabus or course description, and, in the case of summer study, the course lasts six weeks or consists of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Students who plan to satisfy the requirements for a foreign language citation in Portuguese must complete a Foreign Language Citation Study Plan with the Director of Language Programs in Romance Languages and Literatures (Boylston Hall 436, 617-495-2524).

Russian
The equivalent of four terms selected from among the following: Slavic B or Bab (each a full course), Slavic 101, 102, 103, 104, 109, 110, or any advanced Russian language course at the level of 111 or above.

Other advanced courses in Russian, courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit, or Slavic 91r (if conducted in Russian) may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Slavic Languages and Literatures concentration.

Sanskrit
Sanskrit 102a, 102b, and any two 200-level courses in Sanskrit.
Courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or Sanskrit 91r may be substituted for
these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies of the Sanskrit and Indian Studies concentration.

Slavic Languages
See Czech, Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian.
For information about studying other Slavic languages (for example, Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian), please speak with the Director of Undergraduate Studies.

Spanish
Four of the following half-courses beyond the A level:
Second-year level: Spanish C and 30.
Third-year level or beyond: Spanish courses at the 40, 50, 60 and 65 level; or any Spanish course numbered at a higher level conducted in Spanish; Foreign Cultures 33, 37.

Students should consult the online Courses of Instruction for information on citation credit for literature courses numbered 100-199.

Students will not receive credit toward a language citation for courses taken out of sequence.

That is, students may not take a second-year or a third year course after having taken a course at the 70, 90, or 100-level. Students will receive neither Harvard nor citation credit for any course designated as equivalent to one they have already taken.

A half-credit toward a citation is granted to students who have enrolled in a Spanish language section (i.e. discussions, readings, and written assignments all in Spanish) of a literature or Core course given in English. This means that students enrolling in Spanish language sections in two classes given in English will receive credit for one half-course toward the four required for a citation.

Other courses taught primarily in Spanish or a maximum of two courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the undergraduate adviser in Spanish. Courses taken out of residence will count toward a citation in Spanish if the course is taught entirely in Spanish as indicated in the syllabus or course description, and, in the case of summer study, the course lasts six weeks or consists of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Students who plan to satisfy the requirements for a foreign language citation in Spanish must complete a Foreign Language Citation Study Plan with the Director of Language Programs in Romance Languages and Literatures (Boylston Hall 436, 617-495-2524).

Swahili
The equivalent of four terms selected from among the following: Swahili B (a full course), Swahili 101ar, Swahili 101br, or AAAS 90r (if conducted in Swahili, with permission from the Director of the Language Program).

Other advanced courses in Swahili taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or AAAS 91r (if conducted in Swahili) may be substituted for these courses with permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Department of African and African American Studies. In the case of summer study, the course must last six weeks or consists of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Swedish
Swedish Ba and Bb, or the equivalent taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit and approved by the Director of Undergraduate Studies in Scandinavian.

Two terms of third-year or beyond Swedish language and culture courses. These may consist of any tutorial or 100-level course conducted in Swedish, Supervised Reading and Research courses conducted in Swedish (Scandinavian 91r), or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit and approved by the Director of Undergraduate Studies in Scandinavian.

Classical Tibetan
Tibetan 103 and any three 200-level courses in Tibetan.

Courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies of the Sanskrit and Indian Studies concentration.

Turkish
Four of the following half-courses: Turkish 120a, 120b, 130a, 130b, 149.
More advanced courses or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations concentration.

Twi
The equivalent of four terms selected from among the following: Twi B (a full course), Twi 101ar, Twi 101br, or AAAS 90r (if conducted in Twi, with permission from the Director of the Language Program).

Other advanced courses in Twi taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or AAAS 91r (if conducted in Twi) may be substituted for these courses with permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Department of African and African American Studies. In the case of summer study, the course must last six weeks or consist of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Ukrainian
Four terms of Slavic Gr, two to be defined as third-year, or advanced.
Courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or Slavic 91r (if conducted in Ukrainian) may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Slavic Languages and Literatures concentration.

Urdu and Hindi
The equivalent of four terms selected from among the following: Urdu 102 (a full course), 103a, 103b, 104, 105r, 106.
Courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses with the permission of the Head Tutor of the Sanskrit and Indian Studies concentration.

Vietnamese
Vietnamese 120a, 120b, 130a, 130b, 140, and 140b.
Language courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for these courses only after assessment via a Vietnamese Placement Test and with the permission of the East Asian Language Coordinator (eal@fas.harvard.edu).

Yiddish
The equivalent of four terms selected from among the following: Yiddish B, Ca, Cb, 102r, 103r, 105, 200r, 202r, 204.
Other courses taught primarily in Yiddish or courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit may be substituted for the above courses with the permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations concentration.

Yoruba
The equivalent of four terms selected from among the following: Yoruba B (a full course), Yoruba 101ar, Yoruba 101br, or AAAS 90r (if conducted in Yoruba, with permission from the Director of the Language Program).

Other advanced courses in Yoruba taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or AAAS 91r (if conducted in Yoruba) may be substituted for these courses with permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Department of African and African American Studies. In the case of summer study, the course must last six weeks or consist of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.

Zulu
Four terms of AAAS90r (conducted in Zulu), beyond the first year of language study. Two half-courses must be at the third-year level or beyond.

Other advanced Zulu courses taken out of residence for Harvard degree credit or AAAS 91r (if conducted in Zulu) may be substituted for these courses with permission of the Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Department of African and African American Studies. In the case of summer study, the course must last six weeks or consist of at least 50 class hours; in addition, students must submit some graded written work done for the course.